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A Definition of Comparative Effectiveness Research
Reader's Guide

The goal is to find out why the cases are different: Comparation is one of the most efficient methods for explicating or utilizing tacit knowledge or tacit attitudes.

This can be done, for example, by showing in parallel two slides of two slightly different objects or situations and by asking people to explain verbally their differences. The method is also versatile: On the basis of the target of your study you have to decide which are the interesting aspects, properties or attributes that you will have to note and record for each of the cases.

In the table on the right, these aspects are called A, B and C. During the process of analysis, you then can add new aspects or drop out fruitless ones. Those aspects that are similar in both the cases need not be recorded, because here you are not making two case studies but only a comparison of the cases.

The final goal of research is usually to reveal the systematic structure, invariance , that is true not only for the cases that were studied, but for the entire group population where the cases came from.

In other words, the goal is to generalize the findings. Of course, it would be foolhardy to assert anything about a larger group, if your study consisted of just two cases. If all or the majority of these pairs show the same invariance, its credibility will quickly rise.

There are statistical methods to calculate the credibility, or statistical significance of the findings. The question whether the found invariance then is true even outside the population, is something that the researcher normally leaves to be speculated by the readers of his report.

In the case that you wish to compare more than two groups, or the number of cases is large, the study begins to approach classification , a method that is discussed on another page. Social scientists should undertake not to interpret survey data relating to a country about which they know little or nothing. This would tend to ensure cross-national collaboration in the interpretation as well as the design of comparative research.

Resist the temptation to compare too many countries at once. Emerging naturally from the six previous rules, cross-national surveys should ideally be confined to the smallest number of countries consistent with their aims, rather than celebrating as many nations as possible in their purview. Cross-national surveys should pay as much attention to the choice and compilation of aggregate-level contextual variables, as they do to individual-level dependent and independent variables relevant level-2 variables.

Social scientists contemplating or engaged in cross-national studies should be as open about their limitations as they are enthusiastic about their explanatory powers. The fact is that only certain subjects, and only certain aspects of those subjects, can successfully be measured cross-nationally.

Stringent and well-policed ground rules for comparable survey methods should become much more common in comparative studies than they are now. To avoid infringing well-established cultural norms in one country or another, substantial national variations in methods are sometimes tolerated that should render comparisons invalid.

N Engl J Med ; Last accessed 9 September Initial national priorities for comparative effectiveness research. National Academies Press, Skip to main content. We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you.

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Comparative research is a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to make comparisons across different countries or cultures. A major problem in comparative research is that the data sets in different countries may not use the same categories, or define categories differently.

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"Comparative effectiveness research is the generation and synthesis of evidence generated through prospective and retrospective studies with either primary or .

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The major aim of comparative research is to identify similarities and differences between social entities. Comparative research seeks to compare and contrast nations, cultures, societies, and institutions. The comparative method is often used in the early stages of the development of a branch of science. It can help the researcher to ascend from the initial level of exploratory case studies to a more advanced level of general theoretical models, invariances, such as causality or evolution.

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“Comparative Effectiveness Research” is, in many ways, a new term for research that has gone on for decades under different labels. Comparative definition is - of, relating to, or constituting the degree of comparison in a language that denotes increase in the quality, quantity, or relation expressed by an adjective or adverb. How to use comparative in a sentence.