Olaudah, like Locke, was a fighter for a cause. His defense of the rights of the human continues to influence the discourse on democracy, human rights and politics. Those two prominent men had a social vision of what a society was supposed to be like and fought to achieve it.
He was purchased by a lieutenant in the Navy called Michael Pascal who named him Gustavus Vassa, a name he also came to be known by. His life as a slave was a continues struggle and suffering. He could not tolerate the idea of deprivation of his right of freedom and chose to rebel through denying the new name his owner gave him which lead to his punishment as if he was a mere dog whose job was to obey without reluctance.
Being deprived of his freedom reduces the human being into an animal. The life of the slave was really hard according to the journals of Olaudah. He was later sold in the Caribbean and acquired by a Philadelphian Quaker who taught him how to read and write better and educated him in the Christian faith.
He allowed him to trade to earn the money required to buy his freedom as young man in his twenties and traveled to England where he fought for the cause of slavery abolition. Olaudah observed in his book how slaves were treated as inhuman subjects with no feelings.
It was almost as if the masters considered them to be a different specie or an alien creature. Our third book or novel is concerned with a creature that displays those characteristic: Frankenstein by the author Mary Shelley refers to the scientists within the book Victor Frankenstein who knows how to create life and decides to create a creature that is like man but with more powerful characteristics. The novel is made up of the correspondence between the Captain Robert Walton and his sister.
The story starts with Walton traveling to the North Pole where he will be trapped by a sea of massive ice rocks. This is how Walton meets Victor Frankenstein and this is also how he comes to know about the monster Victor had created. Victor is himself terrified by what he has created and runs away thereby allowing the monster to be released. The troubled scientist feels sick with guilt and his depressed state only worsens when he hears about the murder of his brother.
It appears that the monster was who murdered his brother and this was explained by the monster himself as an attempt at taking revenge of Victor who had treated him with horror and disgust. He begs Victor for a companion since he cannot stand the loneliness. Victor does decide to oblige but later on regrets it and destroys his second creation to which the monster vows revenge that he soon fulfills through killing one of his friends.
The monster manages to also kill his bride and Victor decides to follow the monster which led him to meet Walton and dies a few days later on. Walton concludes his letters by recounting how surprised he was to find the monster weeping on his body in agony and loneliness. It turns out that the monster had feelings like any other human being and could be good or evil like any other normal person. The same thing happened with the white owners of slaves in the era of Olaudah.
They stopped seeing the slaves as human beings and regarded them as mere properties to be feared and doubted if they acted differently the way Olaudah did through educating himself. The fear of the unknown is a characteristic of the human psyche but what is also a common aspect between the white and black man and the monster of Frankenstein is the need of freedom. The first publication of the book took place in The main theme of the book is the class struggle and the weaknesses of the capitalist system.
The Communist Manifesto is what the communist party strengthened the ideology of the Communist party. Karl Marx continues then to mark the differences between the bourgeois and proletariat class since his main focus will be throughout the paper on how the proletariat has been victimized by the capitalist system and bourgeois class.
He states in the first section that: Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.
He also echoed the claim that the human need for property is what leads to the creation of civil society as we know it today. Marx acknowledges this human need for the acquisition of property but seeks to regulate it more through establishing laws that do not allow for a minority of rich people to subject and benefit from a larger group that is the real driving force of any society: The proletarians will, according to Marx, rise to power through class struggle.
The bourgeois continues exploiting the proletarians but the latter will use their right to revolution Locke again to throw this form of social establishment and create a new reality more fit for the general and larger public.
This vision was eventually realized by the Bolsheviks in the former Soviet Union. Our human need for freedom equality and development is according to Locke, Olaudah, Marx and Shelly a fundamental aspect of our psychological nature. This leads us to the fifth book to focus on: On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin who explains in this work how humans have developed from their natural state to their current one and how they have been able to survive.
The natural state described by Darwin in his book is different from that of Locke in that he focuses on how we developed physically as people from the shape of monkeys to that of humans. It is needless to say that his book has caused the necessary controversy in the religious circles.
Darwin presents a very interesting evolutionary idea in this particular book to explain the process of human evolution: The idea of the transmutation of the species was however not welcomed by the Church establishment of that time and is still not looked at with favor by several even nowadays and despite the many scientific data that has been supplied to enhance his theory.
Natural selection or to use the other phrase, the survival of the fittest, has been described by Mr. Our last book is also closely related to the themes we have seen so far in relation to human rights and natural states and the preservation of an efficient civil society. Sign in Create an account. Oxford, Clarendon Press Find it on Scholar. Request removal from index.
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Locke on Toleration and Inclusion. Lee Ward - - Ratio Juris 21 4: Ruth Arundell - - Res Publica 3 2: Are Evolving Human Rights Harmless? Anna Westin - - The New Bioethics 20 2: The Natural Moral Law: The Good After Modernity.
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Essays on the Law of Nature The Latin Text with a Translation, Introduction and Notes, Together with Transcripts of Locke's Shorthand in his Journal for
Other articles where Essays on the Law of Nature is discussed: John Locke: Oxford: The resulting Essays on the Law of Nature (first published in ) constitutes an early statement of his philosophical views, many of which he retained more or less unchanged for the rest of his life.
This is the standard edition of John Locke's classic work of the early s, Essays on the Law of Nature. Also included are selected shorter philosophical writings from the same decade. In his valedictory speech as Censor of Moral Philosophy at Christ Church, Oxford, Locke discusses thequestion: Can anyone by nature be happy in this Reviews: 1. Essays on the Law of Nature has 12 ratings and 2 reviews. Aaron said: This is a decent reading of natural law, but it is hardly convincing to anyone who /5.
John Locke: Essays on the Law of Nature: The Latin Text with a Translation, Introduction, and Notes ; Together with Transcripts of Locke's Shorthand in His Journal for John Locke - - Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press ;. The natural instincts come to be subjected to laws and regulations to allow for the peaceful existence within a society. The six books that we have seen so far all deal with several issues related to humanity’s primal needs that can clash at times with society’s expectations of the individual.