It is a combination of chemicals from the marijuana herb and is sprayed into the mouth. Sativex is approved in more than 20 countries to treat muscle spasms from MS and cancer pain.
No single organization tracks all research studies of medical marijuana and marijuana-based drugs and herbs. The following review is a summary of controlled studies since Patients were less agitated and ate better after treatment. Two animal studies show that chemicals in marijuana may help symptoms of some forms of autism. Several studies on animal and human cells and a small study on 9 people suggested THC and other cannabinoids chemicals derived from cannabis might slow the growth of brain cancer.
Multiple lab studies in human cells have also shown the potential for them to slow other kinds of cancers, such as breast cancer and leukemia ; no studies in people have taken place. More than 45 studies have looked at marijuana and pain related to chronic diseases such as cancer , diabetes , fibromyalgia , multiple sclerosis , HIV, rheumatoid arthritis , and spinal injuries. The studies have included smoked marijuana, along with herbal and man-made forms.
The majority of the studies showed an improvement in pain relief in comparison to a placebo or to other traditional pain medications. About a quarter of the studies showed no improvement. Personal stories and animal studies have shown that cannabidiol, one of the chemicals in cannabis, may help seizures in children with epilepsy. New York University just announced it will do a study of children with epilepsy and marijuana.
Some of the results included a reduction in bowel inflammation and reduced acid reflux. Further, some patients were able to retain more nutrients in their bodies, and the disease went into remission.
More than 24 studies have looked at smoked marijuana, cannabinoids, and MS. Sativex is approved to treat MS in 24 countries, but not in the U. Two clinical trials showed that THC and cannabidiol could help with psychotic and other symptoms.
The National Institutes of Health is funding a small clinical trial that also aims to show whether THC and cannabidiol can ease symptoms.
Pain Management Feature Stories. Continued Also, most of the studies had fewer than patients. Both drugs are used to treat nausea and lack of appetite related to chemotherapy and in AIDS patients. Its use is highly restricted. Thirty-one patients were enrolled and twenty nine completed the trial. Although sleep was improved by both amitriptyline and nabilone, nabilone was superior to amitriptyline.
Nabilone was marginally better on the restfulness but not on wakefulness. No effects on pain, mood, or quality of life were observed. AEs were mostly mild to moderate and were more frequent with nabilone. The most common AEs for nabilone were dizziness, nausea, and dry mouth. Low-dose nabilone given once daily at bedtime may be considered as an alternative to amitriptyline.
Longer trials are needed to determine the duration of effect and to characterize long-term safety. Fiz et-althe year of Demographics and clinical variables were similar in both groups. The amount and frequency of marijuana use differed among patients. The use of marijuana was associated with beneficial effects on some FM symptoms. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy New cannabimimetic agents have been associated with fewer systemic adverse effects than deltatetrahydrocannabinol, including the recent development of marijuana medicinal extracts for sublingual use - approved in Canada- and have had promising findings for analgesia in initial human trials.
Several synthetic cannabinoids have also been studied in humans, including cannabinoid agonists available on the international market. Cannabinoids provide a potential approach to pain management with a novel therapeutic target and mechanism. Chronic pain often requires a polypharmaceutical approach to management, and cannabinoids are a potential addition to the arsenal of treatment options.
But it was in the s that its potential as an analgesic began to be studied leading eventually to the discovery of D9THC understand how d9THC affects the nervous system, and in the year of a cannabinoid receptor, CB1, was identified in the brain. These chemicals - the brain's equivalent of d9THC - are now collectively known as endocannabinoids.
The authors created an experimental model using rodents, to which they applied painful stimuli involving a non-opioid pathway. After the authors gave the animals rimonabant, a compound that blocks Cannabinoid-CB1 receptors, they observed that the rats no longer exhibited an antinociceptive effect; that is, the animals felt more pain. Moreover, when the rats were made tolerant to the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids - by treating the animals chronically with a compound that competes with cannabinoids- the rats began to feel pain again.
In the midbrain, 2-AG concentrations increased 2 minutes after a painful stimulus. This increase was followed at 7— 15 minutes by the appearance of anandamide. Anandamide and 2-AG therefore have an apparent role in stress-induced relief of pain. Wallace et-althe year of Experimental pain models have been used to assess the analgesic efficacy in normal volunteers.
This research effort sought to evaluate the effects of three doses of smoked marijuana on the pain and cutaneous hyperalgesia induced by intradermal capsaicin in healthy volunteers. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled crossover design methodology was conducted in fifteen healthy volunteers - four women, eleven men.. Capsaicin was injected into opposite forearms five and forty-five minutes after drug exposure and pain, hyperalgesia and side effects were assessed.
Five minutes after marijuana exposure, there was no effect on capsaicin induced pain at any dose. However, forty-five minutes after marijuana exposure, there was a significant decrease in capsaicin induced pain with the medium dose and a significant increase in capsaicin induced pain with the higher dose. There was a dose dependent increase in the subjective highness score reported after marijuana exposure, which persisted into the late time course.
There was no significant difference in the neuropsychological tests before and after marijuana exposure. This research effort suggests that there is a therapeutic window of analgesia-pain killer for smoked marijuana with lower doses decreasing pain and higher doses increasing pain. Further research efforts are required to determine this therapeutic window and time course of analgesia. Cox et-althe year of European Journal of Pharmacology Less is known about phyto cannabinoid and opioid interactions involved in mechanical nociception and in chronic inflammatory pain models, such as Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritic model.
This combination represented a 1: The isobolographic analysis indicated a synergistic interaction between d9THC and morphine in both the non-arthritic and the arthritic rodents. Neuroendocrinology Letters twenty five: Cannabinoids also demonstrate dopamine-blocking and anti-inflammatory effects. AEA is tonically active in the periaqueductal gray matter, a migraine generator. Cannabinoids have similarly demonstrated the ability to block spinal, peripheral and gastrointestinal mechanisms that promote pain in headache, Fibromyalgia, IBS and related disorders.
The past and potential clinical utility of marijuana-based medicines in their treatment is discussed, as are further suggestions for experimental investigation of CECD via CSF examination and neuroimaging. Migraine, Fibromyalgia, IBS and related conditions display common clinical, biochemical and pathophysiological patterns that suggest an underlying clinical endocannabinoid - body's own, deficiency that may be suitably treated with phytocannabinoid medicines.
Neuro Endocrinology Letters Russo's landmark paper, just ten years ago. Investigation at that time suggested that Phyto-cannabinoids may block spinal, peripheral and gastrointestinal mechanisms that promote pain in headache, Fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and muscle spasm. Clinical experience is bearing this out.
Further research and especially, clinical trials will further demonstrate the usefulness of medical marijuana. As legal barriers fall and scientific bias fades this will become more apparent.
Free medical marijuana papers, essays, and research papers.
Medical Cannabis Research Papers The latest in cannabis research: Dive deeper into the medical research on marijuana conducted by doctors and researchers and published in scientific journals. Cannabis as a Substitute for Prescription Drugs.
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