These names are self explanatory. Self harm can be a result of any number of mental disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, and multiple personality dissorder. It can also be used as a way to cope with many problems such as death, problems at home, work, or school. Self harming releases chemicals in the brain, making the harmer feel safe, secure, and happy. Because of these chemicals, self harm can become extremely addictive.
Even if someone out grew of that phase of life, or fixed their problems, the self harming would remain as a way to cope with any small problem they face. Adults who work in an education based setting sometimes feel uncomfortable dealing with young teens who self harm. Whether this is because of personal reasons r ignorance, self harm is a common subject in schools. This appeared to make the child uncomfortable and regret asking for help. Schools have classes designed to educate teens about how to grow up nd take charge, and deal with problems; staff should have the option to take similar classes.
If self harm was discussed more in these classes, and appropriate coping methods were taught, there would be less of a problem in schools. Medical officials and help with the healing of a self inflicted wound, they have no mandatory obligation to help the patient. Nurses will use little or no anesthesia on the patient, or will treat them last — no atter the severity of the wound.
Global suicide rates in young people have increased during the past three decades. According to the Office of National Statistics , 1. More than four times this proportion 5. Most child and adolescent mental the health services take the school-leaving age of 16 as their upper limit. Thus most available statistics are only for children up to the age of It is important that children who fall within this narrow and oft-omitted age-gap year olds are not neglected, and are properly catered for.
The statistics also show that among the year olds, boys were almost twice as likely to self-harm than their female counterparts. Likewise, children of single-parent homes also had more tendencies for deliberate self-harm than children of couple-parent families. Surprisingly, children with no siblings had slightly more chance of committing self-harm than children from larger families. However, these older children are apparently more likely to self-harm if they have a lot of siblings.
This gives an insight into the level of shrouding and secrecy that is associated with these phenomena and casts doubts on the validity and reliability of these widely accepted statistics.
Stigmatisation and ostracization commonly associated with suicide and self-harm victims and families is the most likely reason behind under-reporting and denial. In addition, prevalence of suicides is largely underestimated because of reluctance of coroners to classify cause of death as suicides, especially in children. Self-harm techniques such as self-cutting usually go unnoticed. As the most common method of DSH by teenagers, the implications are that the rates of self-harm amongst adolescents are grossly under-reported.
Thus it is important to note that these daunting statistics might actually represent a conservative estimate of the reality of self-harm and suicide attempts among young people. Investigating potential socio-demographic and clinical predictors of suicide, Cooper et al concluded that there was an approximately fold increase in risk of suicide in deliberate self-harm patients than in the general population.
Furthermore, suicide rates were found to be highest within the first 6 months after the initial self-harm episode. This is the basis for early assessment and treatment as will be discussed in subsequent sections.
Examining trends and characteristics of self-harm in adolescents between and , Hawton et al found that the prevalence of self-harm among young females was on the increase. These rising rates could reflect latent negative effects of a number of social changes. Possible reasons for this increase include increased rates of family breakdowns, increasing rates of substance misuse, media influences and common peer behaviours.
In a self-report survey, Hawton et al studied the prevalence of deliberate self-harm in adolescents aged 15 and 16 years old, and the factors associated with it.
In this age group, females were more likely to self-harm than males. Ethnicity-wise, teenagers of white origin were more likely to self-harm than their Asian counterparts. Black young people were the least likely to self-harm. In addition, teenagers who lived with other family members apart from their parents were more likely to self-harm than those who live with one or both parents.
Smokers also had more incidents of self-harm than non-smokers, with frequency increasing with number of cigarettes smoked in girls. Similar trends were observed with young people who consumed alcohol.
Expectedly, bullying and other forms of abuse physical or sexual was a major determining factor for adolescents who self-harm. Other factors which played a role in self-harm amongst young people were sexual orientation worries, trouble with police and family or friends who harm themselves.
Although self-harm is observed in all age-groups, it has an average age of onset of 12 years old Fox and Hawton, Thus the importance of addressing this problem in adolescents is blatantly obvious. Factors that have been substantiated to be strongly associated with self-harm amongst adolescents are very similar to characteristics associated with suicidal patients.
In an ecological and person-based study, Hawton et al investigated the influence of the economic and social environment on deliberate self-harm and suicide. Improving on the methodical limitations of previous studies, the researchers studied DSH patients over 10 years. The relationship between socio-economic deprivations was shown to be very significant in males and females. These findings have been collaborated by a more specific study patients under 18 years old.
Socio-economic deprivation was significantly associated with overdose, self-injury and poisoning by illicit substances Ayton et al, Accounting for confounding factors, correlations remained significant, further validating the results of the study.
Although the relationship between ethnic density and deliberate self-harm tendencies is not well established, Neeleman and colleagues demonstrated variable deliberate self-harm rates in various minority groups, suggesting protection and risk in different areas.
This is a gap in the literature for future research. School stress has also been shown to play a role in DSH in teenagers Hawton et al, The findings from widespread international research suggest that the most determining risk factors for youth suicide are mental disorders and a history of psychopathology Beautrais, Others could be individual and personal vulnerabilities, social, cultural and contextual factors.
Possible motives for self-harming behaviour other than death are highlighted below Hawton and James, Furthermore, research has provided a useful insight into the factors that can influence repetitive self-harm behaviours despite aftercare and treatment.
This is important in the assessment of patients who have self-harmed to identify those who are likely to self-harm again and prevent such episodes. Factors that are associated with repeated self-harm as highlighted by Hawton and James include personality disturbance, depression, alcohol or substance misuse, disturbed family relationships, social isolation and poor school records.
Hawton et al demonstrated that self-harm repeaters differed from the non-repeaters in having higher scores for depression, hopelessness and trait anger, and lower scores for self-esteem.
Specific reasons that have been cited for self-harm by young people, as highlighted by the National Inquiry include:. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence NICE, has proposed guidelines for the short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and secondary care.
Such guidelines are readily applicable to the Health service i. Integrating these treatment guidelines and the findings of related research, the management of these young self-harm patients will be extensively discussed under the following sub-titles:.
A comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service needs to take all the above facets into consideration when treating this group of extremely vulnerable patients.
The NICE guidelines emphasize the importance of treating patients who have self-harmed with the same care, respect and privacy as any other patient.
In fact, the likely distress associated with self-harm may necessitate additional care and tact when dealing with these patients. Also, health services are urged to provide appropriate training to all staff clinical and non-clinical that has any form of contact with the patients to fully equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge to effectively understand and care for people who have self-harmed.
Ideally, training should cover areas such as crisis counselling, risk assessment, stress management, mental health triage, cultural awareness, working with families and confidentiality issues Wynaden et al, These patients should be offered an environment that is safe, supportive and minimises any distress.
The NICE guidelines suggest a separate, quiet room with supervision and regular contact with a named member of staff to ensure safety at all times. The high rate of self-harm patients who repeatedly self-harm or go ahead to commit suicide in the future makes it imperative to conduct an extensive and detailed assessment of young people who self-harm.
Young people who have self-harmed in a potentially serious or violent way should be assessed either by a child and adolescent psychiatrist, a specialist mental worker, a psychologist, a psychotherapist or a psychiatric nurse Hawton and James, The NICE guidelines propose that all people who have self-harmed should be offered this preliminary assessment at triage, regardless of the severity of the attack.
As the first point of contact, ambulance staff have a crucial role to play in the initial assessment of young people who have self-harmed NICE, The Australian Mental Health Triage Scale is a validated comprehensive assessment scale that provides a means of efficiently rating clinical urgency so that patients can be seen in a timely manner. Research has shown the importance of cultural, ethnic and racial awareness and sensitivity in the assessment process. Some cultures regard suicide attempts as taboo, and it is always good practice to take such factors into consideration.
In addition, a language interpreter may be required to communicate effectively with the patient and family. Following the preliminary assessment, it is considered good practice to have an action or treatment plan Hawton and James, At this point, temporary admission should be considered especially for patients who are who are very distressed, for people who may be returning to an unsafe or harmful environment and for people in whom psychosocial assessment proves too difficult for any number of reasons NICE, If admission is indicated, a paediatric, medical adolescent, or designated unit should be utilised as appropriate.
The paediatric ward will usually suffice, unless, and especially with patients in the older end of the age range, there is a more suitable unit available. Waterhouse and Platt investigated the difference in outcomes between self-harm patients who were admitted to hospital and those were discharged as outpatients. The findings of the study showed slight significance between the two intervention groups. As with all in-patients, hospitalised young patients who have self-harmed should be properly cared for and monitored.
The Crisis Recovery Unit at the Bethlem Hospital in London, a national specialist unit for people of 17 years and above who repeatedly self-harm, have a different and slightly radical approach to the in-patient treatment of these patients Mental Health Foundation, Their philosophy is that the individuals should take responsibility for their actions. This practice-supported technique focuses on helping young people realise for themselves that self-harm is not an effective strategy for dealing with their problems.
It encourages these patients to talk about their problems and explore alternative coping strategies, including strategies for dealing with the urge to self-harm. However, the effectiveness of such an intervention in younger patients is not certain, as these children might not be mentally mature for such self-realisation tactics. Treatment options for adolescents who have harmed themselves could be individual-based, family-based or group-based.
Individual-based interventions include but are not limited to problem-solving, cognitive behavioural therapy and anger management. Family therapy could be in the form of problem-solving or structural or systemic therapy, and group therapy could involve any of these techniques performed in teams or groups.
Problem-solving therapy or brief psychological therapy as it is otherwise known, is a brief treatment that is aimed at helping the young patient to acquire basic-problem solving skills to identify and prioritise their problems Mental Health Foundation, The process involves implementing discussed possible solutions to a specific problem, and reassessing the situation to review progress -sort of like a self-audit process.
The basics of problem-solving therapy as identified by Hawton and James are highlighted below:. This method of problem-solving therapy appears to improve depression, hopelessness and general problems in deliberate self-harm patients significantly more than control therapy Townsend et al, This finding has been variously collaborated in other studies and the results are considered reliable. This therapeutic process usually takes 5 to 6 one-hour sessions, and can be delivered by any experienced mental health professional with suitable training and supervision Mental Health Foundation, It is direct and easily understood and is thus suitable for the younger patients.
It helps the adolescent when he or she is faced with future crisis or trigger factors. Although widely used adopted in psychotherapy in the treatment of depression, cognitive behavioural therapy CBT has limited evidence of use in self-harm patients.
Even in depression, its use has been shown to be less effective as monotherapy than fluoxetine monotherapy and in combination with fluoxetine March et al, Dialectical Behaviour Therapy DBT is an intensive therapeutic technique that was introduced to help those who repeatedly harm themselves. It could involve as long as a full year of individual therapy, group sessions, social skills training and access to crisis contact Mental Health Foundation, Fewer behavioural incidents have been reported with this treatment when compared with an input unit run on psycho dynamically oriented principles Katz et al, , thus strengthening findings by Rathus and Miller in In addition, an older study Linehan et al, had shown very significant differences in likeliness to repeat self-harm in patients undergoing dialectical behaviour therapy and the control group.
The NICE guidelines suggest the use of dialectical behaviour therapy in self-harm patients who have a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, but stress that this should not preclude the use of other strongly validated psychological treatments with vast evidence-based support.
Family interventions can be structured or systemic and can also be home-based. Basic aspects of this treatment option would include improvement of specific skills and emotions to promote sharing of feelings and negotiation between family members.
Elements of assessment of families of self-harm victim should include Hawton and James, There is some anecdotal evidence that demonstrate the importance of family therapy in young people who self-harm, especially those have well-documented family issues or strained family relationships. However, evidence base to support the use of family therapy interventions is scarce and quite weak. In a randomly controlled case study, Harrington et al compared an intensive family therapy intervention with standard self-harm aftercare.
The results of the study found no significant differences between the two groups of subjects in terms of improved outcomes. Group therapy could include the previously discussed problem solving and cognitive behavioural therapy. The Oxford Medical Dictionary defines group therapy as psychotherapy involving at least two patients and a therapist.
Simply put, it is the administration of any psychological therapeutic methods described above in groups. Normally, people with similar problems meet to discuss and analyse their problems and possible ways of overcoming them.
Though making fun of people may make you feel better about yourself, it is not all fun and games. They might not take it as a joke like you. They might be getting worse and worse every time someone makes a comment about them.
Self-inflicted injuries and eating disorders are such a wide-spread issue. Teenagers everywhere are harming themselves by physically hurting themselves, not eating, and even more. Self- harm is a mechanism some people use to try and take away these emotions. More often than not, self-injury is simply a mechanism for coping with extreme emotional distress.
It can relieve intense feelings, anger or anxiety. It can provide a way for someone to break emotional numbness for feel some sort of reality. Self-harm and eating disorders can cause accidental death to the teen who is just trying to cope with something that could be fixed with counseling, or different treatment of those around him or her. More than one in four people under twenty five years have no idea what to say to a suicidal friend.
There are so many treatment options and phone lines for teens struggling with depression, anxiety, eating disorders, Etc. If you see someone harming themselves you could help them even just by being there for them. Singer, Demi Lovato went through self-image problems. She suffered from depression, cutting, anorexia, and bulimia.
Self Harm essaysSelf-harm is a growing and troubling trend. It's a frightening disorder, most common among women, where hurt and alienation are expressed by injuring oneself. There are several kinds of self-harm. Self-mutilation and various eating disorders are among the most common forms of.
Psychology Essay - Although it is strongly linked to self-harm, it is noteworthy that self-harm is often not a suicide attempt, but actually a parasuicide.
Self harm in all of its forms is one of the greatest dangers that face vulnerable adolescents, promoting unhealthy cycles, and increasing the risk. The Despairing Act of Self Harm Essay Words | 4 Pages. Creating scars on your skin is actually the action of self-harm; the intentional hurting of one’s self, direct to the body tissue, with or without the intention of suicide.
Self- harm is known as many different terms such as self- mutilation, self- inflicted violence, self- injury, self- destructive behavior, self- abuse, and parasuicidal behavior. People who self - harm usually feel that self - injury is a way of temporarily relieving intense feelings, pressure and/ or anxiety. Self Harm research papers examine the direct intentional injuring of the body without committing suicide; also known as deliberate self-harm (DSH).